Advanced Photon Source

An Office of Science National User Facility

Detectors

Detectors

On 12BM-B we use many different detectors to support our multitude of techniques. These detectors include:

Ionization Chambers

FMB Oxford Ionisation Chambers - IC Plus 150mm

There are 4 Ion Chambers in use at 12BM (filled with N2, Ar, or Kr) each being used to monitor the beam at different positions during experiments. The first three chambers are used during XAS experiments to monitor the beam - 1 before the sample area (Incoming Beam Flux) and 2 after the sample area for transmission and reference foil. There is a forth chamber that is used during diffraction experiments for beam monitoring before the sample area. Sometimes experiments call for special setups in this case we use the ion chambers as needed around the experiment.

  • 150mm length Chambers.
  • Normally filled with 100% N2 (Can have other gas mixtures - Ag, He, etc).
Scintillators
  • Cyberstar - NaI type
Single Element Si - Diodes
  • Monitoring the beam in small areas around the experiment.
  • Attached to SAXS beamstop to monitor the beam and align the beamstop.
Solid State Detector
  • Canberra 13-element Ge

The Canberra 13-Element Germanium Detector is a liquid-nitrogen cooled detector. The detector is usually placed at 90 degrees to the x-ray beam direction to reduce the amount of scattered radiation from entering the detector. A set of elemental filters are available that can be used to filter out scatter and elastic-scatter. Some parameters are shown below.

  • Electronics Upgrade 2017 with Quantum Detectors Xpress3Canberra 13 Element Germanium detector
  • FWHM energy resolution approx. 127eV at 6.539 keV (Mn k-alpha)
  • Upgraded electronics remove the bottleneck at the readout stage
  • Greater than 3.5Mcps output rate
  • >80ns deadtime per event
  • 13 Channels supported
CCD Detector

The Marccd CCD detector is the reliable standard for x-ray imaging.marccd detector

  • Baseline stabalization for SAXS / WAXS.
  • High resolution calibration (1 × 1 binning).
  • Custom Phosphors.
  • Frameshift software for time-resolved imaging.
  • Active Area - Round 165mm² diameter
Technical Data
Resolution(s) 512 × 512, 1024 × 1024, 2048 × 2048
Pixel Size (512, 1024, 2048) 315.4µm2, 158.7µm2, 78.8µm2
Source to Detector approx. 1165mm

The Marccd CCD detector is the reliable standard for x-ray imaging.mx225

  • 9 CCDs bonded to fiber-optic tapers
  • Higher resolution with no gaps
  • Excellent Linearity
  • Low Noise
  • Active Area - Square 225mm x 225mm
Technical Data
Resolution(s) 1536 × 1536, 2046 × 2046, 3072 × 3072, 6144 x 6144
Pixel Size (1536, 2046, 3072, 6144) 146µm2, 110µm2, 73µm2, 37µm2
Source to Detector approx. 1165mm
PILATUS 100k

The PILATUS 100k developed by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel array detector. Using single photon counting mode, with very wide dynamic range, and very short readout times. Some parameters are shown below.

  • Dynamic Range of 1:1x106Pilatus Detector
  • Read Out Time < 3.0msec
  • Pixel size of 172µm2
  • Energy Range of 3keV to 30keV
  • Counting Rate > 2x106
  • Active Area of 83.8mm2 x 33.5mm2
  • No Readout Noise
Vortex 4-Element

The Vortex ME4 is a four-element silicon drift detector (SDD) with an active area of 170mm - 200mm2. It offers superior energy resolution and high throughput performance for Fluorescence experiments. Some parameters are shown below.

  • Extended probe of 300mm to 600mmVortex 4 Detector (4 Element)
  • Large Area, Four Element SSD
  • Superb Energy Resolution
  • Temperature Stabilization of Detector
  • Cooldown time of 3 minutes